Next IUGG General Assembly Montreal, Canada
(July 8-19, 2019)
895 days left
Convener: Jurgen Neuberg (Leeds, U.K.)
Co-conveners: Art Jolly (Wairakei, New Zealand), Jessica Johnson (Bristol, U.K.)
Seismic and infrasonic monitoring of volcanoes is at the core of any monitoring program undertaken by volcano observatories or research institutions. Major advances in volcano seismology have been made in recent years allowing us to identify several categories of volcanic seismic events, and interpret them in terms of different magmatic or tectonic processes encountered on a volcano. Attempts based on multi-disciplinary methodologies turned out to be particularly successful.
This symposium is dedicated to latest developments in volcano seismological monitoring techniques, interpretation and modelling methods in a wider volcanological context. One of the new seismological aspects we want to emphasize in this symposium is the interaction of magma with hydrothermal systems and the resulting seismic signatures.
Particularly welcome are studies that combine seismic records with other monitoring or modelling techniques, such as ground deformation, gas monitoring, petrology and fluid dynamics of magmatic systems.
Convener: Christopher Hamilton (Tucson, USA)
Co-convener: Steve Self (Milton Keynes, U.K.)
Convener: Ingrid Ukstins Peate (Iowa City, USA)
Co-conveners: Scott Bryan (Brisbane, Australia), Steve Self (Milton Keynes, U.K.)
This symposium will focus on recent advances made in our understanding of delivery mechanisms and volatile impact of flood volcanic eruptions from Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) – mafic, silicic and bimodal. Increases in our understanding of eruption product records, volatile load and dispersal, and identification of vent sites sourcing individual eruptions provides the opportunity to re-evaluate these parameters with the goal of quantifying the current state of knowledge and guiding future targets of study. We invite papers that address the following themes: 1. Studies of LIP eruptions and vent sites as a mechanism for quantifying eruption processes. 2. Quantification of volatile fluxes on the scale of individual eruptions to LIPs. 3. Climate impact of volatiles from individual eruptions to cumulative province emplacement – especially novel volatiles such as F, Cl, Br. 4.Integrated impact of eruption mechanisms on volatile dispersal and consequences.
Convener: Adelina Geyer Traver (Barcelona, Spain)
Co-conveners: Nobuo Geshi (Ibaraki, Japan), Caroline Bouvet De Maisonneuve (Singapore), Olivier Bachmann (Zurich, Switzerland)
Collapse calderas have long been a major subject of interest for volcanologists and other geoscientists because they are the most catastrophic volcanic events that have occurred on Earth. In addition, caldera reactivation in the shape of unrest creates important dilemmas for hazard assessment, as not all periods of unrest lead to an eruption and not all eruptions are caldera-forming. Thus, understanding the magmatic processes occurring beneath silicic calderas and the thermodynamic and mechanic conditions of magma and host rock required to generate collapse calderas remain a major goal in Volcanology. This session will address the principal processes accompanying the development of calderas, including their regional tectonic and magmatic context and the requirements for their formation and evolution. We will also address the conditions leading to the complex pattern of caldera unrest, potential for evolution into an eruption, and the role of calderas as sources of geothermal energy and metallic ore deposits. In this session, we invite contributions from field studies, petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, volcano monitoring and modelling (analogue or numerical) on the details of a caldera cycle. What are the long-term or short-term precursors of a caldera-forming eruption? When is the transition from resurgent to precursory activity and how does it occur? What controls the length of recurrence intervals? When do magmatic vs. non magmatic (e.g. hydrothermal) processes dominate the system?
Convener: Graham Leonard (Lower Hutt, New Zealand)
Co-conveners: Bruce Houghton (Honolulu, USA)
This symposium welcomes diverse submissions exploring recent volcanic impacts and the outcomes of mitigation strategies; including multi-disciplinary applied research involving the collaboration of physical and social scientists and city officials. This symposium is sponsored by the Cities and Volcanoes Commission of IAVCEI, aiming to highlight and improve the linkage between the volcanology community and emergency managers.
Convener: Sylvain Charbonnier (Tampa, USA)
Co-conveners: Tomaso Esposti-Ongaro (Pisa, Italy), Greg Valentine (Buffalo, USA)
Prediction of the impacts of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is required for hazard and risk assessment, and for design of risk mitigation measures. The goal of such predictions is to estimate the area that may be affected by the movement of a potential PDC, and to map hazard intensity parameters, such as temperature, dynamic pressure, velocity, depth of flow and thickness of deposits. The technology for making such predictions has advanced substantially in recent years. Numerical computer-based models now exist, capable of approximating the motion of a given volume of pyroclastic material from its source to the deposition area. As the technology begins to mature, it is useful to compare the various models each other. A benchmark is a comparison of models aimed at simulating the same physical process upon common initial and boundary conditions and outputs, but using different physical formulations, mathematical approaches and numerical techniques. Recently, some efforts have been done on PDC numerical modeling in the direction of constraining the models themselves with data coming from different approaches, such as field study and experiments. Following the approach of inter-comparison projects for geophysical mass flow, volcanic ash dispersal and atmospheric models, we invite contributions from all those involved in field-based, experimental, theoretical and numerical studies related to benchmark/verification/validation of PDC models. This symposium aims to (1) draw together various contributions in order to highlight new approaches, methodologies and results and (2) set up the basis for a future community-based benchmarking effort on PDC models.
Convener: Michael Ort (Flagstaff, USA)
Co-conveners: Fabrizio Alfano (Phoenix, USA), Steve Self (Milton Keynes, U.K.)
Eruptions involving basaltic magma are the most common type on Earth, Mars, the Moon, and Venus. On Earth, they occur in several tectonic settings, such as plate margins and intraplate/intercontinental settings and show a high variability in intensity and style. Typically, basaltic volcanism produces effusive to weakly explosive eruptions and affects small areas. However, highly explosive eruptions involving basaltic magmas, ranging from violent strombolian to Plinian, are less common but still frequent on a global scale, and can have a high impact on human life and environment. Such eruptions are highly likely in the next centuries from several active areas on Earth: Etna, Stromboli, Iceland, and many within-plate volcanic fields. This session invites contributions related to explosive basaltic volcanism, including magma characteristics, from generation to shallow storage, conduit processes, ascent rate, volatile content and degassing, dynamics of fragmentation, tephra dispersal and sedimentation, and hazard and risk assessment. We welcome papers on studies based on field relations, experiments, or modeling, or combinations of these approaches.
Convener: Olivier Roche (Clermont-Ferrand, France)
Co-conveners: Amanda Clarke (Tempe, USA), Kirsten Chojnicki (La Jolla, USA)
Constructing reliable models for volcanic dynamics requires detailed knowledge of the behavior of both key processes and material properties under the actual conditions of pressure, temperature, and velocity attained in the volcanic system. Laboratory-scale experiments provide the best means to quantify and characterize such processes and properties, particularly those that are either difficult to directly observe in the field or characterized by uncertain governing relationships preventing their exploration in computational studies. However, experimentalists are challenged by addressing the full range of temporal and spatial scales operating in volcanic systems, the spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability inherent within them, and the multi-component nature of their behavior. We welcome experimental contributions focusing on overcoming such challenges and their impact on our understanding of volcanic systems.
Convener: Patrick Liam Whelley (Singapore)
Co-conveners: Simon Carn (Houghton, USA), Gro Birkefeldt Møller Pedersen (Reykjavik, Iceland)
Remote sensing data are essential in volcanology. Observations are routinely made, using satellite and airborne platforms, of gases, aerosols, deformation, topography, morphology, chemistry, thermal inertia, and other properties. These data are used for reconnaissance, disaster preparation and response, deposit mapping, input for hazard modeling (eg. DEMs used as input in Lahar and lava flow models), comparison with in-situ measurements, and model verification, among other applications. Along with the remote sensing data explosion and the increased need for automated analysis, statistical interrogation of these data sets facilitates comparisons of techniques, analyses of accuracy, interpretation of time-series, probabilistic model building, among other purposes. However, statistical methods to do so are not standardized and commonly difficult to find. We invite contributions from across the broad field of remote sensing that address a statistical treatment of data to learn something about volcanic eruptions or landforms. This symposium will bring together volcanologists with diverse interests that all rely on statistics in volcano remote sensing.
Convener: Eliza Calder (Buffalo, USA)
Co-conveners: Mark Bebbington (Palmerston North, New Zealand), Jacopo Selva (Bologna, Italy)
While Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been around for quite a while, the volcanic equivalent is still in its infancy. One difficulty is that while PSHA can concentrate on a scalar variable (peak ground acceleration) resulting from an earthquake, volcanic hazard is inherently multidimensional, with pyroclastic flow, tephra, lava, lahars, etc. each characterised by their own separate metrics. Furthermore, some volcanically-induced hazards are not necessarily temporally associated with eruption onsets, like lahars, seismic swarms, etc. Analysis of volcanic hazards must take into account both the type(s) of impact, and the likelihood of an impact of a given scale within a given time window (exposure time). Where is the lahar likely to go, and at what height and speed; what area will the lava flow inundate; what is the runout distance of a pyroclastic flow; what is (for airspace management especially), the duration of the eruption? These questions are the basis of decision-making around high-risk volcanic centres, and can only be answered via probabilistic hazard analysis. Often such analysis is undertaken for individual hazards, but the overall goal of integration of a suite of possible hazards is still highly problematic. A further issue is that current methodologies allow some hazards (e.g. tephra fall) to be better characterised, probabilistically, than others (e.g. lahars/debris flows). In order to advance probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis, it is clear that attention has to be focused on the weakest aspects of the current procedures. We seek papers that quantify, in a probabilistic fashion, the mid-to long-term hazards from a volcano (exposure times in the order of years to tens of years). The focus should be on providing information for the authorities for both hazard management and land-use planning purposes. Topics of interest include the probabilistic assessment of hazard exposure and probabilistic hazard maps, the design of scenarios for civil defence exercises, simulations, uncertainty estimation, expert elicitation, and quantification of dependencies between hazards. Papers that incorporate the impact on decision making, vulnerability and risk analyses, and other aspects of risk management are particularly welcome.
Convener: Andrew Bell (Edinburgh, U.K.)
Co-conveners: Roberto Carniel (Udine, Italy), Henry Odbert (Bristol, U.K.), Laura Sandri (Lazio, Italy), Jacopo Selva (Bologna, Italy)
Short-term hazard evaluations, issued during unrest and pre-eruptive crises, are a key tool for mitigating volcanic hazard. However, they are generally associated with significant uncertainties which arise from numerous different sources. Successful short-term hazard forecasting is therefore likely to adopt a multidisciplinary approach, in which different pieces of evidence and different scientific skills are combined to help decipher what is frequently a puzzling picture. To this end, several different scientific methods have recently been proposed (or re-proposed). These approaches include both deterministic methods, such as the forecast failure method, and probabilistic methods, which may be unsupervised or incorporate expert judgement. In all cases, the primary input to these methods comes from analyses of monitoring data and eruption databases associated with the volcano displaying unrest or its analogues. The treatment of scientific uncertainty can be crucially important, particularly for low-probability, high-impact events. Consequently, techniques to quantify and incorporate these uncertainties into hazard forecasts have been a focus of numerous studies in recent years. However, given the relative rarity of eruptions, it is difficult to compare the performance of different methods, and to evaluate just how “good” eruption forecasts can be. In this symposium, we welcome presentations discussing successful or problematic aspects of short-term hazard forecasting. These presentations may highlight the pros and cons of different methods, the lessons learned from truly prospective applications, or ideas for forecast testing and evaluation.
Convener: Franco Tassi (Florence, Italy)
Co-convener: Dimitri Rouwet (Palermo, Italy)
Volcanic lakes are one of the most spectacular natural features on our planet. They are the intersections of magmatic-hydrothermal systems and the Earth’s surface, and are, poetically speaking, “blue windows” into the depth of a volcano. This peculiar situation ideally leads to the fact that tracking temporal variations in the chemical and physical properties of a volcanic lake can be highly insightful to decipher the volcanic, hydrothermal or degassing histories of the underlying volcano. As such, volcanic lakes are ideal targets in monitoring setups. Hazards related to volcanic lakes can be direct (e.g. phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions, CO2 limnic gas bursts, lahars by lake throw out), or indirect (e.g acid rain related to strongly evaporating and degassing lakes, acid seepage into the volcanic edifice). Logically, fluid geochemistry is the most obvious means to study volcanic lakes, although related subsurface processes are better understood by geophysical surveys, numerical modeling, or hydrogeology. Moreover, the sedimentary record at crater lake bottoms can trace back into the past activity of lakes, or can even give insights into paleoclimates. This symposium welcomes multi-disciplinary approaches to study volcanic lakes, in order to stimulate future interdisciplinary research.
Convener: Paul M. Ayris (Munich, Germany)
Co-conveners: David E. Damby (Munich, Germany), Claire Horwell (Durham, U.K.)
Natural mineral dusts (e.g., volcanic ash) have a diverse range of effects on environmental and biological systems. These effects are the product of a complex interplay of particle physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, in-situ processes acting upon those particles, and the resilience of the afflicted system. Understanding the response of any environmental or biological system to a mineral dust input therefore requires an in-depth understanding of these properties and processes; particularly, those associated with the mineral dust particles.
Particle morphology and granulometry control dust transport, affecting exposure to organisms and deposition onto environmental surfaces. Amongst other things, these particle properties can: influence energy, water and nutrient cycling at environmental interfaces; induce abrasion of biological surfaces when mobilised by wind, water or biotic action; and, dictate processing of particles following inhalation or ingestion. Particle surface chemistry is a product of composition and mineralogy, and any alteration processes acting upon that surface prior to, and following, deposition. The particle surface can therefore act as a source of species which can be mobilized in terrestrial and aquatic environments, and/or may function as nutrients and toxins upon uptake into biological systems. For example, the speciation of iron at the particle surface may influence its bioavailability to phytoplankton in iron-limited regions of the open ocean, and may also control redox chemistry within organisms.
Consideration of the effects of mineral dusts in both environmental and biological systems often relies on common concepts and techniques. Accordingly, we envisage interdisciplinary discourse amongst individuals working at the interface between natural mineral dusts and these systems. We invite contributions from field and experimental studies that constrain or document the influence of physical, geochemical and mineralogical properties of natural mineral dusts on environmental and biological systems, and/or the resilience of these afflicted systems in response to disturbance or insult.
Convener: Ian Smith (Auckland, New Zealand)
Co-convener: Karoly Nemeth (Palmerston North, New Zealand)
In 2015, Prague will host the IAVCEI General Assembly as part of the IUGG Conference. Prague is the heart of Central Europe where large number of alkaline basaltic volcanic fields are located. These are generally considered to be typical intracontinental monogenetic volcanic fields and they have been the subject of intensive geological research in the past 150 years. Many of these volcanic fields provided either the first or one of early ideas that formed the fundamental basis of our understanding of the formation of small-volume basaltic (monogenetic) volcanoes. On the basis of this historical fact the IAVCEI Commission on Monogenetic Volcanism offers a technical symposium on monogenetic volcanism based on the past decade of advances in our understanding, especially to demonstrate the evolution of knowledge on a historic scale. Monogenetic volcanoes are the most common volcanoes on Earth and in the Solar System. They can form in nearly any geological setting and their eruption mechanisms can span from phreatomagmatic explosive to purely effusive styles, both under water or in subaerial environments. It seems that monogenetic volcanoes can be fed through plumbing systems directly linked to deep source regions, but there are examples where volcanic eruptions have been triggered by magma sourced near surface storage zones. As a consequence, while basaltic systems are by far the most common among monogenetic volcanoes, the full range of magmatic compositions does exist. Monogenetic volcanoes “per sensu stricto” are those that are fed from a single magma batch directly from mantle sources; therefore their eruption durations are usually short, they are chemically simple and their volcanic edifices are normally small. In the past decade research has demonstrated that volcanoes generally considered to be monogenetic are in fact far more complex, and can be built through volcanic processes involving multiple magma batches that erupted over a long time period; the resulting volcanic edifices, while remaining relatively small, can be very complex. On the basis of these recent advances, many groups have raised questions on how monogenetic are monogenetic volcanoes, and how practical it is to define a volcano as monogenetic. In the past decade we have seen numerous research outputs targeted at these issues. In general, while these questions are valid and form the driving force of research on monogenetic volcanoes, it is undeniable that defining a volcano to be monogenetic has a fairly similar meaning for most of us (eg. relatively small, short lived, normally basaltic and forming dispersed volcanic fields usually in intracontinental settings). In this symposium we wish to invite researchers to present their latest results targeting this fundamental area in volcanology. We would particularly like to encourage submissions on research expanding the source to surface model for this type of volcanism, targeting the petrogenesis, magma segregation, transport and shallow level eruption dynamics that are responsible for the birth of this type of volcanism. Research outputs that find novel approaches to determine the longevity, chemical and sedimentological complexities of volcanic edifices and associated volcaniclastic successions associated with this type of volcanism are especially welcomed. The symposium also intends to call for presenters worked on understanding the consequences of the recent advances in understanding monogenetic volcanism from a volcanic hazard and eruption scenario perspective. Researchers presenting work based on those monogenetic fields from the “birthplace” of understanding monogenetic volcanism in Central Europe are intended to form a vital part of this symposium as well.
Convener: Martin Jutzeler (Southampton, U.K.)
Co-conveners: James D.L. White (Otago, New Zealand), Magnus T. Gudmundsson (Reykjavik, Iceland), Adam Soule (Woods Hole, USA)
Water in liquid and solid form covers large parts of the Earth, and about two thirds of volcanic eruptions worldwide occur subaqueously. Interaction of magma with water is common, either in subaqueous or glacial settings (oceans, lakes, glacial meltwater) or with aquifers. Water depth, physical properties of water and available volumes of water and ice all contribute to modify eruption and transport processes relative to subaerial settings. Subaqueous eruptions involve the entire range of magma compositions, spanning from effusive lava flows to highly explosive eruptions, and the volumes of external water involved vary by orders of magnitude. Even though field studies, experimental and theoretical work have advanced knowledge a great deal, our understanding of some styles of activity remains poor and analogies with subaerial volcanism are limited. This session aims to bring together research on eruption, transport and deposition in modern and ancient volcanic eruptions that involved and interacted with external water. We are particularly interested in research on facies analysis, micro-textures, lava flow and seamount or subglacial edifice morphologies, physical and chemical processes involving magma-water interactions, and geophysical and other observations of subaqueous to emergent eruptions. The session covers field-based and other observational, laboratory or theoretical studies and welcomes contributions on hazards and risk mitigation studies associated with such eruptions.
Convener: Emma Liu (Bristol, U.K.)
Co-conveners: Julia Eychenne (Bristol, U.K.), Alison Rust (Bristol, U.K.), Katharine Cashman (Bristol, U.K.)
Volcanic eruptions generate pyroclasts with variable sizes, shapes, vesicularities and crystallinities. Changes in the nature of these eruptive products are often attributed to differences in eruption style, either in the form of different degassing regimes or interaction with external water. Recent eruptions have highlighted the need to constrain further the fragmentation mechanisms that produce volcanic ash, and their effects on the resulting size distributions and morphologies of erupted pyroclasts. In this symposium, we aim to bring together insights gained from both physical volcanology and experimental studies regarding the processes of magma fragmentation and ash generation. Contributions related to the role of bubbles and/or crystals in controlling how and when fragmentation occurs are particularly welcomed.
Convener: Antonio Costa (Bologna, Italy)
Co-convener: Yujiro Suzuki (Tokyo, Japan)
The accurate description of the dynamics of convective columns developed during explosive volcanic eruptions represents one of the most intriguing and crucial challenges in volcanology. Eruption column dynamics are significantly affected by the complex interactions of the volcanic plume and the atmospheric wind field, during both strong eruption columns, rising above the tropopause, and weak volcanic plumes, developing within the troposphere and following bent-over trajectories. The understanding of eruption column dynamics is pivotal for estimating volcanic source mass flow rate. Estimation of such mass flow rate is also crucial for tephra dispersion models used to assess aviation safety and population hazards. Papers that quantify such processes combining theoretical studies, observations and laboratory experiments are particularly welcome.
Convener: Katsura Tomoo (Bayreuth, Germany)
Co-convener: Catherine Mccammon (Bayreuth, Germany)
The physical properties of rocks control many geophysical and geological phenomena on the Earth's surface, including earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Reliable knowledge of such properties is therefore essential for understanding these phenomena. Other important applications include mapping the distribution of ground water, exploration of mineral and energy resources, prediction and prevention of natural hazards, and managing of radioactive waste. We welcome a variety of contributions based on laboratory experiments and numerical simulations in this field.
Convener: Katsura Tomoo (Bayreuth, Germany)
Co-convener: Catherine Mccammon (Bayreuth, Germany)
The structure, dynamics and evolution of the lower mantle and core are still poorly known. The presence of a 660-km thick upper mantle including the crust and transition zone is one complication, while another difficulty comes from the challenge of determining the physical and chemical properties of lower mantle and core materials due to the extreme high-pressure and high-temperature conditions required. Extensive and continuing efforts are still needed to understand these properties. We also emphasize that the stratification of the mantle and core is the primary structure of the Earth, and therefore knowledge of material properties for understanding the core formation process in the early history of the Earth is particularly important. We invite state-of-art contributions about material properties of lower mantle and core phases based on both experimental and theoretical approaches.
Convener: Katsura Tomoo (Bayreuth, Germany)
Co-convener: Catherine Mccammon (Bayreuth, Germany)
Although the primary structure of the crust to the mantle transition zone is relatively well understood, the dynamics and evolution of these regions are still under debate. One reason is that, although many geophysical observations are available from seismology and geoelectromagnetism, the understandings of the physical properties of the constituents that is needed to interpret these observations is quite insufficient. This symposium will bring together the latest experimental and theoretical results including structure, thermoelasticity, rheology, electrical conductivity, and phase relations.
Convener: Costanza Bonadonna (Geneva, Switzerland)
Co-conveners: Adam Durant (Houghton, USA), Alexa Van Eaton (Vancouver, Canada), Corrado Cimarelli (Munich, Germany)
This symposium focuses on processes that modify the transport and fallout of airborne volcanic ash, with particular emphasis on particle aggregation. We seek to bring together interdisciplinary advances from laboratory experiments, remote sensing, numerical models, and studies of the geological record that provide insights into the following processes:
1. Ash particle atmospheric lifetime linked to cloud microphysical processes (e.g., hydrometeor formation, water phase transitions, bulk instabilities);
2. Recognition of aggregate structures in the geological record (including deposits from ancient/modern eruptions and meteorite impacts), and association with dynamic processes;
3. Contrasting sedimentation processes in weak vs. strong plumes, and phreatomagmatic vs. magmatic eruptions;
4. Electrical charging and lightning generation in volcanic clouds;
5. Direct observation, sampling and remote sensing of volcanic cloud properties and products (e.g., measurements of settling velocity, water content and changes in optical properties over time);
6. Mechanisms of particle binding (e.g., role of hydroscopic compounds, heating, ice formation, secondary precipitates, glass alteration);
7. Development of numerical models to describe particle aggregation;
8. Volcanic cloud stratification, and effects of gravitational versus advection-diffusion spreading.
Convener: Jo Gottsmann (Bristol, U.K.)
Co-convener: Jenni Barclay (Norwich, U.K)
Hazard and risk are different and distinct concepts and their quantification requires particular methodologies and multi-disciplinary approaches. Risks are products of how hazards are incorporated into social systems. Volcanic risk management hence bridges between disciplines such as volcanology, social sciences, economics, politics and law. The interdisciplinary dimension of risk management requires a mutual understanding of the different stakeholders at play. For volcanologists, the interaction with a non-scientific audience poses challenges when describing the dynamics and nature of possible future volcanic activity during an emerging crisis. Furthermore aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties of volcanic hazard assessment need to be communicated in a way and manner such that emergency managers can engage in a structured and well-informed decision-making processes. This symposium seeks to discuss the current state of the art in volcanic risk management using case studies of the engagement of volcanologist in the risk management operation chain in different political, cultural and socio-economic environment. We are are particularly interested to explore the degree and nature of engagement of volcanologists in volcanic risk assessment and management to explore the different practices conducted world-wide and to discuss opportunities and threats of this engagement.
Convener: Jackie Kendrick (Liverpool, U.K.)
Co-conveners: Corrado Cimarelli (Munich, Germany), Benoit Cordonnier (Munich, Germany), Bettina Scheu (Munich, Germany)
During volcanic eruptions magma undergoes a complex array of multi-scale processes from magma chamber to surface. Understanding the processes that couple to the geophysical signals is vitally important to understanding the progression of volcanic unrest. In storage, crystallisation, settling and convection play an important role in magma evolution, while the injection of fresh magma stimulates mixing processes. As magma begins to ascend within the conduit, crystallisation and degassing leads to rheological changes that dictate explosive effusive transitions. The flow and transport of 3-phase magma (glass, crystals and pores) leads to strain-dependent reorganisation, producing fracture events that release seismic energy. In the upper conduit crystal and volatile contents, amongst other influences, dictate fragmentation depth and efficiency, which can be investigated experimentally. Alternatively, slower extrusion rates can allow for the growth of a lava dome, which itself presents a challenge in terms of strength and stability, with dome collapse presenting a notable hazard in active volcanoes. Also of importance are the properties of the rocks in which the magma is hosted, which can promote or hinder propagation, undergo alteration and influence flank stability. Given the large scope of the topic, we particularly welcome contributions that integrate results from volcanological and rock mechanics experiments as well as theoretical, numerical and analytical modelling with observations of the natural system.
Convener: Gianluca Groppelli (Milan, Italy)
Co-conveners: Claudia Principe (Pisa, Italy), Roberto Sulpizzio (Bari, Italy), Joan Martí (Barcelona, Spain)
Since the 80’s of the 20th century the Volcanology underwent a tumultuous growth, passing from a mostly descriptive branch of petrography to a modern interdisciplinary science that has learned how to quantify processes, their associated hazards and resources.
In this context, the geology of volcanic areas represents the unavoidable baseline for all the studies dealing with volcanic activity, because the geological record witnesses to the reality, and provides the measure against which the applicability of observations from other sources (e.g. numerical simulations) must be ultimately assessed.
What are geological data collectable on volcanoes? The description of a volcanic succession, , the description of lithofacies association and architecture, the morphology of volcanic landscapes, the geological mapping of volcanic deposits, the volcano-tectonics interactions.
The aim of this symposium is to collect contributions about all these arguments. It includes new techniques in geological mapping, the use of stratigraphy to understand volcanic processes and behaviour, and the use of geological data as a tool in volcanic hazard mitigation. The symposium will also welcome contributions on elaboration of geological databases, and GIS applications.
The symposium will focus on the following areas of research:
- volcano-stratigraphy, including distal tephrostratigraphy;
- volcano geochronology;
- field mapping methodologies;
- tectonic structure of volcanic systems and their relationships with the volcanic activity;
- construction and dismantling of volcanic edifices;
- sedimentology and lithofacies analysis of volcanic deposits;
- geological aspects of hazard assessment;
- geological interpretation of volcanic unrest
Convener: Patrick Liam Whelley (Singapore)
Co-convener: Gro Birkefeldt Møller Pedersen (Reykjavik, Iceland)
This symposium focusses on (1) The use of RS data in geologic mapping of volcanoes, and (2) Implementation of advanced image analysis relevant for proactive and disaster response mapping. The symposium is highly relevant due to the wealth of RS data with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution allowing detailed geologic observations, but at the same time stress the need for semi-automated mapping techniques.
Convener: Magdalena Oryaëlle Chevrel (UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico)
Co-conveners: David Baratoux (Toulouse, France), Thomas Platz (FU Berlin, Germany & Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, USA), Benoit Cordonnier (Gentleman Scientist)
Volcanic processes are efficient mechanisms to reshape planetary surfaces and provide valuable information about planetary interiors and landscape evolution. The study of geological, and in particular volcanic, processes across the Solar System is at the crossroad of many scientific disciplines using in-situ sampling and analysis, remotely sensed data, or experimental and numerical modelling. Our symposium aims to compile all facets of volcanism and associated interactions with other geological processes (e.g., impacts, tectonics) observed in our Solar System. By providing a forum for a broad range of terrestrial and extraterrestrial volcanic landforms and their underlying formational processes, these observations and interpretations will be investigated and (re)viewed in the light of our current understanding of related processes on Earth. Comparative studies on volcanic processes on Earth using multi-instrumental, remotely sensed, experimental, computational, or field data are particularly welcome. The symposium’s main scope is to explore multi-disciplinary approaches across the Earth and planetary sciences communities including remote sensing, fieldwork and in-situ observations by rovers, and experimental/numerical work to enhance our understanding of the formation and evolution of extraterrestrial volcanoes. Furthermore, the presentation of advances in remote sensing techniques and applications for the monitoring of active volcanoes in the Solar System, in particular on Earth and Io, are favoured. The symposium will address, but is not limited to, the following topics: magma dynamics on terrestrial planets, from source to eruption (composition/ differentiation/mingling), morphology/morphometry of volcanic edifices, lava flows, and volcaniclastic flow deposits, interrelation between morphology, rheology, and petrology (chemistry, mineralogy, texture), edifice growth and destruction cycles, volcano-tectonics and loading-induced lithosphere deformation.
Convener: Steffi Burchardt (Uppsala, Sweden)
Co-conveners: Olivier Galland (Oslo, Norway), Valentin R. Troll (Uppsala, Sweden)
Volcanic and Igneous Plumbing Systems (VIPS), which are made up of e.g. magma chambers, sheet intrusions, and conduits, are characterized by complex physical and chemical interactions of magma(s) with the surrounding rocks that occur from atom- to crustal-scale, and span times from seconds to millions of years. Hence, multidisciplinary research is essential to grasp the complexity of VIPS. Diverse scientific approaches have been used to study VIPS that include: (1) volcano geodesy, seismology, and volcanic gases chemistry for studying active VIPS, (2) structural geology, igneous petrology, and geochemistry for studying fossil, eroded VIPS, and (3) laboratory, numerical, and petrological modelling studies to constrain the dynamics and evolution of VIPS. Although all these approaches focus on the same topics, they traditionally operate as independent entities, which frequently leads to contradictory views. This realisation implies that method-based approaches alone are insufficient to fully unravel the complex chemo-physical processes governing the dynamics of VIPS. Instead, a process-based approach, integrating the input from various disciplines is recommended in order to derive a comprehensive understanding of VIPS. The proposed symposium aims to provide a platform for investigations on all components of VIPS e.g. sills, dykes, laccoliths, magma chambers, volcanic conduits, and the interface between magma bodies and their host rocks. Integrating a variety of approaches, e.g. geodetic and geophysical monitoring, field studies, and modelling, the symposium will be an ideal start for a new VIPS commission of IAVCEI, which we will propose to IAVCEI shortly.
Convener: Steffen Kutterolf (Kiel, Germany)
Co-conveners: Richard W. Murray (Boston, USA), Julie C. Schindlbeck (Kiel, Germany), Rachel Scudder (Boston, USA)
Global perspectives on marine and terrestrial volcanism highly benefit from modern tephrostratigraphic approaches, including the documentation of eruption histories and eruptive mass balances. This symposium focuses on studies of subaerial marine, submarine, and lacustrine tephras and volcaniclastic deposits, and how modern Marine and Earth Sciences benefit from cross-disciplinary approaches. Our intent with this symposium is to draw a diverse range of contributions and we invite submissions related to the following: Role of tephras and volcaniclastics to determine time series of eruptions; determination of erupted masses; provenance studies; deposits from submarine volcanism; interaction of on-shore and off-shore deposits, including regional marker beds; geochemistry of sediments and pore waters; marine tephra alteration; volcano-climate interaction; and depositional processes of primary and reworked volcaniclastics. Especially drilling based studies are welcome in this symposium and in particular we encourage submission of papers dealing with recent (IODP Legs 340, 344, 350, 351 and 352) and former IODP, ODP, DSDP and ICDP sediments, as well as gravity core and/or ROV based studies.
Convener: Rosa Sobradelo (London, U.K.)
Co-convener: Joan Martí (Barcelona, Spain)
The management of volcanic crises is a complex task that involves foreseeing its evolution and evaluate possible management sub-plans. Decision makers are afraid of getting a decision wrong, where they need to take important life and death decisions under strict time and uncertainty constrains. A bad decision could have serious consequences, causing unnecessary economic disruption and public anxiety and distress. They need to make their decision based on how severe and how likely the possible hazard scenarios are, what casualties might result from these scenarios, how effective an evacuation would be, and what are the uncertainties of the volcanic risk assessment. In such situation, scientific results and evaluation may result inadequate if they are not presented in a sufficiently clear and understandable way. For this reason, during a volcanic crisis it is of particular importance the communication link between scientists or technicians with Civil Protection agents and decision makers. In this case, it is necessary to translate the scientific understanding of the geophysical hazard into a series of clearly explained scenarios that are accessible to the decision-making authorities. Studying and managing volcanic hazard is by its nature an inexact science, such that an appropriate scientific communication should convey information not only on the geophysical activity itself, but also on the uncertainties that always accompany any estimate or prediction. Therefore, effective volcanic risk management requires identification of feasible actions to improve communication strategies at different levels including: scientists-to-scientists, scientists-to-technicians, scientists-to-Civil Protection, scientists-to-decision makers, and scientists-to-general public. In this symposium, we welcome contributions on (1) existing decision models and approaches to quantifying uncertainty during volcanic crisis management; (2) existing methods that allow to identify the hazard and risk factors the decision maker needs to consider as a whole during a crisis. This is, all the possible scenarios, the hazard associated to each scenario taking into account past data and monitoring data, the vulnerability of each area via the evaluation of the population at risk, the evacuation time associated to each potential scenario, the economic losses associated to the infrastructure, properties, resources, etc; (3) key advances for best-practice communication protocols in crises situations, exploring the needs and constraints of different stakeholders for best-practice information flow and communication.
Convener: Anja Schmidt (Leeds, U.K.)
Co-conveners: Alan Robock (New Brunswick, USA), Jim Haywood (Exeter, U.K.)
Large volcanic eruptions like the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption caused global cooling and winter warming in the Northern Hemisphere for one to two years. The year 2015 marks the bicentennial anniversary of the Mt. Tambora eruption, which was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. A series of smaller eruptions during the past decade may have slightly slowed the rate of global warming. Efforts at climate prediction on seasonal, annual, and decadal scales need to incorporate the effects of volcanic eruptions in their prediction schemes along with oceanic interactions to produce skillful forecasts. This symposium welcomes papers on the effects of volcanic eruptions on weather and climate, particularly plans and methods for incorporating observations of volcanic gas and aerosol clouds from explosive eruptions to aid weather and climate forecasts following an eruption. Papers on portions of this process, including remote sensing of eruptions, even ones of smaller magnitude than 1991 Mt. Pinatubo, such as Kasatochi in 2008, Sarychev in 2009, or Nabro in 2011, and on the effects of series of these small-magnitude eruptions on weather and climate are also welcome.
This symposium is co-sponsored by IAMAS.
Convener: Benjamin Edwards (Carlisle, USA)
Co-conveners: Lucia Capra (Queretaro, México), Christian Huggel (Zurich, Switzerland), Hugh Tuffen (Lancaster, U.K.)
While our understanding of volcano-climate linkages is still developing, increasingly studies are showing feedbacks between them at a variety of time-scales. On one hand many historic eruptions have had documented impacts on short term global temperatures (e.g., Tambora 1815), and on the other local climate events (heavy rains) are now thought to able to trigger eruptions (e.g., Soufriere Hills). This is especially true for glaciovolcanism, for which it has been argued that rapid deglaciation can trigger changes to asthenospheric melting and increased rates of volcanism, as well as having local effects at glacierized stratovolcanoes (edifice failure due to deglaciation). At the same time, damage done to glaciers by large-scale eruptions can hasten rates of melting and ice retreat, even as increased rates of volcanic gas emissions during deglaciation could either mitigate (e.g. SO2) or enhance (e.g. CO2) cyclic climatic warming. We invite contributions to this symposium that investigate the feedback frontiers between volcanism and climate change.
This symposium is co-sponsored by IACS.
Convener: Michael Ort (Flagstaff, USA)
Co-conveners: Fabrizio Alfano (Geneva, Switzerland), Alexa Van Eaton (Vancouver, USA)
How does the involvement of external water and other volatile phases influence the dynamics of volcanic eruptions? Many subaerial eruptions interact with water during magma ascent, fragmentation, dispersal and deposition. This can lead to changes in eruption styles and alter the short- and long-term hazards of volcanic ash and aerosols, Most ascending magmas pass through water-saturated rocks or deposits during ascent, but only some interact with that water significantly. Alternatively, water may become incorporated during the passage of ground-hugging pyroclastic density currents, or from entrainment of moist air. Under what circumstances does the involvement of external volatile phases produce tangible effects? We seek new insights into the range of conditions that can lead to water-influenced volcanism, and their impacts on generation and dispersal of volcanic products. This symposium provides a venue for presentations of results from lab experiments, numerical modeling, and field and remote-sensing observations that examine the role of external volatiles on:
• Fragmentation - grain size and textural signatures;
• Plume dynamics in phreatomagmatic eruptions, such as transitions between explosive and effusive, or buoyant and collapsing phases, and resulting changes in the atmospheric injection of ash;
• Microphysical properties of clouds, including ice formation and lightning generation;
• Ash aggregation and implications for near-source and long-distance dispersal;
• Effects of phreatomagmatic volcanism on climate and the environment;
• Field evidence for the physical range of water sources and amounts involved at different stages of eruption, transport and dispersal;
• Implications for volcanic hazards assessment and planning.
Convener: Pierre-Simon Ross (Quebec, Canada)
Co-conveners: Patrick Hayman (Melbourne, Australia)
Numerous mineral deposits are found associated with volcanic or sub-volcanic rocks, including volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, epithermal deposits, Ni sulfides in komatiites, porphyry deposits, diamonds in kimberlites, etc. As a result both volcanologists interested in understanding the host rocks, and economic geologists studying mineralisation, find themselves working on the same systems, yet there is often a disconnect between these two research streams. Following up on a successful similar symposium at IUGG 2011 in Melbourne, this gathering aims to bring together insights gained through economic and volcanological studies. We welcome presentations on any topic related to mineral deposits in volcanic (and sub-volcanic) systems.
Convener: Gianluca Groppelli (Milan, Italy)
Co-conveners: Claudia Principe (Pisa, Italy), Roberto Sulpizzio (Bari, Italy), Joan Martí (Barcelona, Spain)
The 2nd workshop on Volcano Geology, hosted by IUGG meeting, is the ideal prosecution of the first one, held in Madeira (Portugal) on July 2014. Its main aim is to be a forum in which to discuss the current topics of volcano geology. It also represents the occasion in which to examine the first steps of the incoming new IAVCEI commission on volcano geology. The workshop will be focused on discussing the state of the art of geological studies in volcanology, which are the baseline for the understanding of volcanic activity behaviour.
The workshop will be paced by some invited lectures on selected topics, which will lead and guide the discussion. Part of the discussion will be reserved for the main points emerged from the companion meeting session. At the end of the workshop we hope to be able to produce a preliminary draft of guidelines in Volcano Geology themes and techniques.
For the participants that would present some specific themes for the general discussion a limited space will be reserved by the scientific committee, at which the specific requests need to be addressed.
Convener: Raffaello Cioni (Florence, Italy)
Co-conveners: Arnau Folch (Barcelona, Spain), Costanza Bonadonna (Geneva, Switzerland), Simona Scollo (Catania, Italy), Bruce Houghton (Manoa, USA), Jeremy Phillips (Bristol, U.K.)
In recent years many efforts have been made by groups of researchers and by the THM Commission to revise and define best practices and to make recommendations to the volcanological community studying of fallout tephra deposits. Two orders of problems related with this general issue can be evoked:
- defining accuracy and uncertainties related to basic measures like deposit thickness and bulk density, maximum clast dimensions and grain size, componentry and clast density of the erupted products;
- discussing pros and cons of the different methods, and the related uncertainties, used in the evaluation of fundamental parameters like erupted volume and mass, magma discharge rate, column height, total grain size distribution, extent of ash aggregation, etc.
Many of these types of data are presently available in the literature, but they often lack information related to the methods used in the measurements, or of the related uncertainties, and only few methodologies of data collection are now standardized. Although field volcanologists know very well the cost (both economic and in terms of dedicated time) of gathering these data, and, in some cases, also how many of them are not-replicable, these data are often only partially published, and generally presented only in graphical or in a much reduced form. In their complete form, these data can be of utmost importance in the progress of volcanological science, as they could be used for comparative studies, or as basic data for testing new physical models of eruptions.
We propose to convene a group of experts in these problems who will review methods presently used or recently introduced in the volcanological literature, proposing best practices and recommendations to the volcanological community in order to increase data comparability and to define uncertainties related with the different estimates, as well as to discuss protocols for making available the whole datasets of interest.
The proposed 1-day workshop will be divided into a general session with few focused solicited talks, dedicated to introduce and discuss the different methods, followed by a half-day session during which different working groups will elaborate some general procedures for collecting, presenting and publishing data to be circulated within the community
Convener: Carina Fearnley (Aberystwyth, U.K.)
Co-conveners: Sally Potter (Wellington, New Zealand), Emma Hudson-Doyle (Wellington, New Zealand), Christina Neal (Anchorage, USA)
The communication of volcanic hazard information is vital between the various stakeholders involved in a volcanic crisis, including volcano observatory and civil protection authorities, so to prevent loss of life and minimise social and economic impacts. A number of different tools are used to achieve this goal including: volcano alert levels systems, bulletins or information statements, maps (hazard and risk), and the recently internationally adopted Volcano Observatory Notice to Aviation (VONA), amongst others. This workshop aims to provide the first global review of these tools and their effectiveness by engaging with scientists from other hazards, stakeholders and volcano observatory scientists from around the world. Focus questions include:
- What information do user groups need?
- What experiences can be shared relating to communication tools used around the world?
- How can effective communication tools be developed?
- How can pre-conceived communication tools adapt to emerging and ongoing crises?
- How can we measure or evaluate the effectiveness of hazard warnings and tools?
- How are the public made aware of these tools via education and outreach?
We invite delegates from within the volcanology community, particularly those involved in developing and utilizing communication tools and warnings, as well as emergency managers and other stakeholders, and delegates from related disciplines, such as warning experts, social psychologists, social scientists, and communication specialists from other hazards to contribute to this session. In addition, we invite delegates from other hazards, including tsunami, weather, bushfire, and climate change, to share their approaches, communication lessons, and tools they use and how they might benefit volcanology. This workshop will draw on established knowledge in order to develop more robust volcanic hazard information tools. It aims to bring together the global community to provide a holistic and practice-based overview of volcanic hazard communication, and identify areas that need to be addressed for future progress.
Convener: Soledad Osores (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Co-convener: Guillermo Toyos (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Latin America is one of the regions on Earth mostly affected by frequent volcanic eruptions that generate important amounts of ash that are dispersed throughout all the territory, with serious implications for its 650 million inhabitants, i.e. infrastructure, public health, agriculture and ecosystems and civil aviation. The pressure posed by the incremental occupation of land, the new opening of areas for agriculture and the increased air traffic have made critical the need for the study of volcanic phenomena and in particular of volcanic ash in order to facilitate its detection, monitoring and forecasting and mitigate its consequences. To this end, we propose a 1-day workshop, which main rationale is to promote and encourage the interaction of scientists to address the problematic imposed by volcanic ash in Latin American countries namely from the remote sensing and modeling perspectives, through the development and operational implementation of Earth Observation (EO) based products and their integration with volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDM). We propose to convene a group of experts to review and discuss the state of the art and quality of the EO-based algorithms and modeling approaches currently in place within the Latin American context and alternative paths towards the operational implementation and standardization of products suitable for volcanic ash resulting not only from eruptions and but also from remobilization events. Ultimately, it is expected that this workshop would lead to the development of collaborative work that would aim at an eventual general improvement of the current operational capabilities for volcanic ash detection, monitoring and forecasting of Latin American countries.
Convener: Sam Poppe (Brussels, Belgium)
Co-conveners: Olivier Galland (Oslo, Norway), Eoghan Holohan (Potsdam, Germany), Audray Delcamp (Brussels, Belgium)
A recent series of workshops and conference sessions have provided an overview of analogue modelling techniques and forums for researchers applying these techniques to investigate volcanic processes in a broad sense. These meetings have all contributed to sharing recent technological advances (e.g. laser-scanning, stereophotogrammetry, Moiré-method, X-ray computed (micro-) tomography, etc.) that focus on quantifying deformation signals in laboratory models.
To follow up on the momentum created amongst this growing scientific network, and to emphasize the growing importance of model quantification and scaling, we propose a one-day informal pre-conference workshop to be held at the IUGG 2015 General Assembly in Prague, Czech Republic. The workshop will be divided thematically in two half-day sessions:
Morning session: “Recent Technological Advances in Model Quantification” will discuss cutting-edge and innovative new monitoring techniques to quantify physical parameters in analogue volcanological models. This session will also discuss how our current lab approaches can be further improved to better integrate analogue results with numerical models and with real-time volcano monitoring data.
Afternoon session: “Dimensional Analysis and Similarity of Analogue Models to Nature” will discuss (i) the concept of ‘scaling’ of analogue models and (ii) their application to nature This part of the workshop aims at providing practical insights into how to build a robust dimensional analysis for deriving any physical law governing volcanologic systems. This session also aspires to produce a beginning of a guide to ‘best practices in scaling analogue models’ for future in the community.
Each session will consist of two oral presentations by invited expert speakers as catalysts for a debate amongst the workshop participants. The participants are invited to submit a one-page abstract and present a poster showcasing quantification techniques and/or scaling concepts currently used at their lab. Suggestions on (sub-)topics to be discussed are welcome in advance by contacting the organizers.
Convener: Jessica Johnson (Norwich, U.K.)
Co-convener: Jurgen Neuberg (Leeds, U.K.)
This workshop will cater for two groups of volcanologists: (i) for non-seismologists we will give an introduction and hands-on exercises on how to do basic steps of seismic data processing using both short-period and broadband seismic data. This will allow us to identify and separate volcanic seismic events in time and frequency domain, and develop an understanding of their potential source mechanism and, therefore, their meaning and interpretation in terms of monitoring strategies. (ii) for the experienced specialists in volcano seismology we will focus in a small group on latest advances in particular fields such as moment tensor inversions, identification of source processes, and modelling methods.
This workshop is co-sponsored by IASPEI.
Convener: Joan Marti (Barcelona, Spain)
Co-convener: Karoly Nemeth (Palmerston North, New Zealand)
Spectacular volcanic landscapes and regions are becoming increasingly recognised as critical areas to protect and conserve for the unique geoscientific aspects they represent and as places to enjoy and learn about the science and history of our planet. There is an increasing national and international interest related to “Geoheritage”, "Geoconservation", "Geoparks" and "Geotourism" becoming this a general perception of modern Earth sciences and volcanology in particular. Most notably, "Geoparks", in particular those with active volcanoes, attract an increasing number of visitors everyday and have proven to be excellent tools to educate the public about "Earth Sciences", and the time that most of them have demonstrated to be areas for recreation and significant sustainable economic development through geotourism. However, due to the increasing interest on these geological sites, they also demand increasing scientific knowledge to guaranty the best dissemination of their values but also the security of their visitors by conducting accurate hazard assessment. In order to develop further the understanding of volcanism and Earth Sciences in general and to elucidate the importance of volcanology for Society we propose this Panel Discussion and Outreach on Protected Volcanic Areas and Volcanological Heritage, aimed at encouraging an exchange of information and experiences between organisms and people managing and/or working in protected volcanic landscapes, explaining the importance of knowledge for raising awareness of volcanic landscapes at a territorial scale, and sharing knowledge and raising awareness regarding experiences in management, education and geotourism in protected volcanic landscapes. The panel discussion will develop four main themes:
1) management of protected volcanic areas;
2) scientific values of, and research in, protected volcanic areas,
3) communicating heritage values through education and interpretation, and
4) geotourism as a factor of economic and community sustainable development in protected volcanic areas.
So, contributions on any of these subjects will be more than welcome.